Sung Psalm 29:1-6 (apparently sung at this feast)
Reading Leviticus 23:34-44
Other readings Ex.23:16, Ex.34:22, Num. 29:12-40. Note progressive revelation.
Date/duration: 7th month (Tishri) 15th-22nd around our Sept/Oct.
Names: Feast of booths. Ingathering. Jewish Sukkot.
Nature: Redemptive (remembering 40 years in wilderness in tents)
Agricultural (ingathering and thanks for harvest). A joyous feast.
Notes from message:
- Remembering-temporary, makeshift shelters made from ornamental trees, God’s provision (manna and water) and protection, preventing them becoming too content.
- Rejoicing-in the fulfilled rest in Christ, going up to Jerusalem, Philippians 4:4, covenant (7th feast, 7th month, 7th day-7 bullocks).
- Anticipating-final fulfilment in new heavens and earth when God dwells with man.
Sung Psalm 34:14-20
Read John 6:11-15 (v4 ref.to Passover)
Four types of bread mentioned or alluded to in this chapter:
- Unleavened bread (Passover).
- Barley bread (leavened)-eaten and left over (v9)
- Manna -bread from heaven (v32.
- Bread of life-Christ (v51).
Christ was present at three Passovers:
- John 2:13
- John 6:4
Between these we have Tabernacles (7:1) and dedication (10:22).
- John 11:55
- John 13
More allusions to Christ being the fulfilment of Passover:
He is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29), and the spotless lamb without blemish (I Peter 1:19), without broken bones (Ps. 34:20) and our Passover (I Cor.5:7). Also noteworthy that in contrast to the yearly Passover, Christ was offered ONCE for all (Heb.10:14).
P.S. There are 27 references to the lamb in Revelation, the vast majority of all the NT rerefences. It is as the Lamb slain but now ruling that Christ opens up and brings to pass God’s eternal decree (5:1), causes terror and pours out his wrath when he judges all men (6:16,17), cares for his own (7:17), triumphs over evil and all his enemies (17:14), and marries his blood-bought bride (19:7). Hallelujah!
There are thirty seven references to blood in Hebrews (20) and Revelation (17). Christ was the lamb without spot (Heb.9:14) whose blood was sprinkled on all his people (Heb. 11:28, 12:24, I Peter 1:2) just as its type was sprinkled over the Jews’ doorposts, but his is the blood of the everlasting covenant (Heb.13:20), the bloody covenant, which is signified and sealed in the Lord’s Supper and the redemptive means of the salvation of the church in all ages.
Sung Psalm 42:1-5 (note verse 4b true of Christ)
Reading John 2:13-3:2 (Christ’s first of three attendances at Passover)
Additional to last week’s O.T. references Daniel 10:1-4 when Daniel prays and partially fasts took place during three weeks that included Passover.
Passover in N.T. Points to note:
1. Passover was the most important feast to the Jews, and that included dispersed Jews and proselytes (Gentiles).
2. Best attended (John 11:55, Luke 2:41 and Acts 2).
3. Hard to find a place to keep the feast (Christ had pre-booked!)
4. Opportunity to “fleece” people-moneychangers and animals for sale (Matt.21:12)
5. Opportunity for Christ (and priests) to teach (Luke 2:46, John 3:3, Matthew 22-24).
6. Degrees of holiness (John 11:55, 18:28, 19:31).
7. Singing (Psalm 114-118, Mark 14:26).
The Passover before, during, and after, the exile.
Sung Psalm 42:1-5 (Psalmist is exiled from temple)
Reading Ezra 6:13-22
After the return of many from the Babylonian captivity and the rebuilding of the temple, albeit on a much smaller scale, it was dedicated and shortly thereafter a great Passover was celebrated, though the numbers attending and the number of sacrifices was a fraction of that in Solomon’s day. We believe there were no Passover celebrations in Babylon.
They had to be without blemish and roasted.
Isaiah 30:29 going back to the days of Hezekiah suggests a Passover celebration on the occasion of the decimation of the Assyrian army by the angel of death at night during the full moon (middle of month). 185,000 enemy were killed.
Ezekiel 45:21-24 (in captivity). The prince provides all the sacrifices (which is irregular) and they differ from what is prescribed in Numbers 28:19-22. The interpretation is that this is prophetic of the abrogation of the ceremonial Mosaic law and the coming of the New Testament age with the church as the new temple.
Daniel 4 contains a confession of God’s sovereignty by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (605 BC – c. 562 BC)
Not mentioned below, but I think key in our thinking, is that the head of gold and the tree reaching to heaven was an antichrist and hence an enemy of God and his people despite his confession of God’s sovereignty.
A good article…Article
Daniel 3:23-30 has to be one of the most exciting accounts in all the Bible. The three young Hebrew men refuse to be idolaters of Nebuchadnezzar’s image and are thrown bound into a fiery furnace but exit unscathed.
1. Christ was the fourth person with them in the flaming heat (Isaiah 43:2-4).
2. They were not consumed because of their faith and God’s power over all of nature (Hebrews 11:34).
3. God preserves us so we are not hurt in any wicked persecution (even though we may die we are alive with him forever). (John 10:28,29, Rom.8:28-30)
Furthermore Scripture teaches that:
4. Fire may also be the means of our purification by God (I Peter 1:7)
5. We will never be consumed by God’s wrath. He is a consuming fire (Heb.12;29, II Peter 3:7-12) but we are saved from it by our substitutionary Saviour.
Sung Ps.132:1-9 (A pilgrim Psalm mentioning the ark)
Reading II Chron.35:1-19 (v18 ark)
Passover was the chief feast of the ceremonial law, the first to be celebrated, the first in order during the year and the last one ever kept 9BY Christ and the disciples).
Vv1-6 exhortation of Josiah to priests and Levites
Vv7-9 Gift of offerings
Vv10-19 Celebration of Passover
Ranked in order of greatness the Passovers after entry to the promised land were:
- Under Samuel *2
- Under Josiah (Judah only) *4
- Under Solomon *1
- Under Hezekiah (United Kingdom) *3
*Estimated rank of numbers
Why was Josiah’s so great?
Probable reasons: It reflected s real reformation of religion, it was done according to earlier revelation (Scripture), it was at the temple which was cleansed, the numbers of sacrifices were 37,600 lambs, it was well prepared (vv4,6,10,16), there were no irregularities (as when Hezekiah’s was done suddenly and many were unclean), significant preceding events (Hezekiah had temple reopened after wicked Ahaz had closed it; with Josiah book of law found….yet for all that Jer.3:6 suggests many of the people were pretending loyalty to Jehovah.
Jeremiah 43-49 outlines God’s judgment against Israel, Judah and the surrounding nations as far as Arabia, Egypt and modern Iran, all of which would be conquered mercilessly by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar.
The Passover during the Monarchy
Sung Psalm 120 (pilgrim psalm)
Reading II Chronicles 30
- King Saul’s reign (40 years)-no record of any Passovers.
- King David (40)-brought up ark, instituted public worship. Prepared for temple, but again no record although you would surmise it was being kept.
- King Solomon (40). Built temple, prosperous reign, extensive united kingdom.
We know in his reign initially it was kept at Gibeon (II Chron. 1) then at Jerusalem (II Chron. 8:12-16). But he fell into polygamy and idolatry (I Kings 11:1-13) and as a result the kingdom (representing the church in those days) was divided.
Review Northern Kingdom-Jeroboam till Hoshea (prophet Hosea)
Southern Kingdom-Rehoboam till Hezekiah (finally till Zedekiah)
Chapter outline: verses 2-5 plan (synod)
23-27 additional feast
- Second month (see Num.9:11) because temple not cleansed (29:17,18), previous king Ahaz closed it and was idolatrous (28:24,25), priests not sanctified, people not gathered.
- Levites killed animals instead of heads of houses (Ex.12:6)
- People actually ceremonially unclean (v18) but the spiritual trumped the ceremonial! (cf I Cor.11:30). Hezekiah interceded.
- Another seven days celebrated (like Solomon in I Kings 8:65)
- Teaching (v22)
What made it so great a Passover? Ideas: Number of people, number of sacrifices, length of feast, gladness, Psalms, teaching, exemplary king and church leaders.