Covenant Consecration of Israel (13)


The Priests

Sung Psalm 132;7-14

Reading Leviticus 8 (obeying Exodus 29)

With the institution of the Aaronic priesthood five men are consecrated namely Aaron and his four sons Eleazar, Ithamar, Nadab and Abihu. These and all subsequent priests had to go through this process. It was the first public ordination into the office.


  1. Washing–at the laver-hands and feet (c.f. Titus 3:5).
  2. Clothing—nine parts (believers and ministers now need no special clothes Psalm 132:9, Isaiah 61:10, we have the whole armour, righteousness of Christ, the new man etc.
  3. Anointing—with oil (Ex.30:23-31) typifies the Holy Spirit (I John 2:9, I Tim.3, Gal.5:22-23)
  4. Sacrificing –of animals: a bullock (sin offering v14), a ram (burnt offering v180 and another ram (peace offering v22).
  5. Smearing—of blood on earlobes, right thumb and right big toe (consecration of our walk).
  6. Sprinkling –with oil and blood (v30)
  7. Waiting—seven days in tabernacle courts (John 15 abiding).

So we see that each of these stages in their exclusive physical consecration mirrors our inclusive spiritual consecration as a priesthood in Christ.

Covenant Consecration (Old and New Testament) 11

Covenant Consecration (Old and New Testament)-particularly marriage.

Sung Psalm 34: 8-14

Read I Peter 3:1-15

We continued our comparing and contrasting covenant consecration in Moses’ day and now.

Ex.21:10   speaks of polygamy or concubinage something that Christ and the apostles absolutely forbid. From the beginning in fact God’s ideal is one man and one woman for life. All Old Testament examples of multiple wives multiplied trouble for all concerned! E.g. Abraham, Jacob, David, Elkanah, Solomon. However lessons that abide include care for other wives (if separated from them) and the necessity of provision for a future wife when considering marriage.

Ex.22:16,17 does fornication mandate marriage now? No, especially not if one is a believer and the other not, but neither if both are-there is no compulsion to marry and no law necessitating a dowry.

Deut. 21:10-14   the taking of a captive wife no longer applies because there are no holy wars/booty.

Deut. 24:1-5  “if” should be inserted here because we know God hates divorce (Mal. 2:16), he only tolerated it among the hard-hearted unbelieving Jews. Jesus forbad this (Matt.19, Matt.5, I Cor.7, Eph.5)

Ex. 20  no adultery is a moral law for all time.

I Peter 3:1-5 emphasizes submission of wife and adorning being inner beauty.

V7 the husband’s calling

Vv8-12 ethics in church

13-17 suffering

18-22 Christ’s suffering, resurrection and ascension

4:1-6 we are no longer to live in lust

Vv7-11 our calling in church

Vv12-19 suffering persecution

5:1-4 calling of elders

Vv5-14 more exhortations.

For further reading:

Consecration of Israel (both O.T. and N.T) 10

The Consecration of Israel (O.T. and N.T.)

Sung Psalm 39:6-13

Reading I Peter 2

We continue our comparison and contrasting of Old Testament Israel and New Testament Israel. Peter’s epistle using multiple borrowed Old Testament phrases shows clearly that New Testament Israel equates with Old Testament Israel, they are ONE church. I Peter 2:9,10 refer to the calling of the Gentiles (formerly in darkness and not a people), now elect, holy, royal and part of a spiritual nation (not a political one). Believers are called strangers and pilgrims, descriptions initially given the fathers of Israel (Abraham, Isaac etc). Strangers is also used of Israel (I Chron. 29:15, Psalm 39:12) because they, like us are different from the ungodly world and are moving forward to a heavenly inheritance (Heb.11:10). Our good works are honest labour, submission to rulers c.f. Ex.22:9,28, office bearers in church and state including man-made laws (c.f. Romans 13:8, and Acts 5:29 and all for the Lord’s sake. The Old Testament had no room for Christian liberty mentioned here because it was detailed legislation but now we have habits or activities that are left up to individual conviction e.g. foods, clothes, sports. The civil laws governing slavery (Ex.21) are quite different from I Peter 2:18-21 and v.v. 22-25 show by Christ’s example how that suffering for doing good is praiseworthy and indeed the cross was the ultimate example of non-retaliation in the face of persecution.

Consecration of Israel (8)


Sung Psalm 50:1-6

Reading I Peter 1:1-16

Reading Exodus 19 and 24 alongside I Peter 2:9 we see great similarities. In both passages God’s people are called:

1) Peculiar treasure (v5)

2) Kingdom of priests (v6)

3) Holy nation (v6)

This demonstrates that the New Testament church to whom Peter is writing, in what is modern Turkey, is Israel. Both passages describe the one covenant people of God; hence dispensationalists and Jewish pre-millennialists are in error.

The true Israel of God are:

  1. Catholic (Jew and Gentile)-there were always proselytes alongside Jews in the first century church.
  2. Elect according to foreknowledge (Deut.7:6-8), foreknowledge being God’s sovereign eternal love.
  3. Sanctified-then by animal blood (external and ceremonial cleansing), now by Christ’s blood (internally and in reality)-note both sprinkled as redemption is applied.
  4. The goal is obedience (Ex.19:5, 24:7, I Peter 1:14 and I Peter 3 (wives)).
  5. The N.T. is better as we have definite rebirth and eternal heavenly inheritance (inheritance of land an emphasis in O.T).
  6. Trials (all of life) all to the purpose of purifying our faith (I Peter 1:7)-the Jews manifestly failed on this score e.g. in the wilderness.

But thank God, in Christ, we have the “full package” of the fruit of the Spirit (love, joy, peace etc) along with faith and a lively hope through the resurrection of Christ, to whom we are bound eternally.

Consecration of Israel (7)

Sung Psalm 89:29-37

Reading II Corinthians 3:1-18

It is interesting but also illuminating that the Spirit in time and in salvation takes away the vail (Old Covenant of Law or covenant of works v16) from any Jew (or Gentile) and replaces it with an open face beholding Christ in the New Covenant. The Jews made Moses wear that vail because God in Christ was too bright and holy and condemning of them!

The key verse exposing Israel’s breaking of the Old Covenant law is Jeremiah 31:31-34. We know that breaking the covenant is disobeying the commandments (Deut.4:13) not that God ever breaks his covenant (spiritual bond of faith) with any of his elect people (OC or NT). The nation of Israel broke the covenant for centuries through its reprobate majority (Dan.9:5,6) as also Christ’s makes clear in his parable of the vineyard (Matt.21:33ff).

The Law considered apart from the Spirit and Christ, kills people by condemning them (to death). Romans 6:23! But remember that OT faithful believers had the law in their hearts (Psalm 37:31) the promise of Jeremiah was not only prospective but retrospective! Moses and David had faith!

We considered the covenant breaking of Adam (hiding and blaming), Noah (drunkenness and exposure), Abraham (lying, bigamy), David (adultery) and this latter despite the wonderful promises in II Sam.7:16 and I Chron.17:12,13). Yet, even through this breaking of the covenant, God kept his side by causing Christ to be in line of David and Bathsheba!

Israel as a nation is mentioned more than any other covenant recipient as a covenant breaker because as a covenant it concerned so many people and such detailed laws, and this was seen in the secession of the Northern Kingdom and the wickedness of many of the Kings of Judah, all this despite the wonderful promises of Isaiah (chapters 7 and 9 especially), Psalms 2, 45 and 110 all pointing to the eternal Davidic King. The Davidic covenant though later in time, was essentially only broken by one man and as such, his covenant-breaking is not so extensively mentioned in Scripture.

In Psalm 89 we see God’s covenant faithfulness to David (Christ) esp. in vv28-37 along with his subsequent desertion (think cross)/chastisement in vv37-47 and this being also true for every backsliding believer.

The New Covenant is not like the Old Covenant (Jer.31:32,33) in that every true recipient or friend of God has the law written on their heart and the ability, by the Holy Spirit, to keep it! The organic nature of God’s covenant people needs to be kept in mind. The people of God in all ages are a vine or a wheat field when considered as a whole (organic idea) yet there are always dead branches and tares mixed in (they are not all Israel who are of Israel).

A NT verse to sum up todays class might be II Timothy 2:12,13






Fire-a useful servant but bad master!

“And there came a fire out from before the Lord, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat: which when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces.” Lev.9:24.
“And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the Lord, which he commanded them not. And there went out fire from the Lord, and devoured them, and they died before the Lord.” 10:1,2.
The same fire that confirmed God’s presence and help to his elect people, slew those who were disobedient and reprobate. In the same way God confirms his loving presence to us in answering prayer and opposes and destroys our enemies who do not repent.
 “Observe how jealous God is in matters of worship; how much he dislikes hypocrites, and formal professors; how severe he will be against such who bring in strange doctrines; what will be the fate of the contemners of Gospel doctrines and ordinances; and how much he resents those who trust in themselves, and their works, and bring in anything of their own in the business of salvation, which is strange fire, sparks of their own kindling, a burning incense to their own drag, and sacrificing to their own net.” John Gill.
“I am come to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if it be already kindled?” Luke 12:49

Drink Offering (final)

Drink Offering

Sung Psalm 116:9-19

Reading Numbers 15:1-12

Note that the wine of the drink offering was poured out twice daily after the daily burnt offering and the meal offering. It was also poured out after any and every burnt offering on the occasions outlined in v3 namely annual pilgrimage feast days, a vow or freewill offering, and again after and along with the meal offering. Further-more it was also offered with the peace offering (v8). The difference here is that this sacrifice after the burning of the fat and innards, was eaten signifying fellowship with God.

To summarise what all these offerings typify: As we already said, the burnt offering is the accomplishment of atonement for sin by the complete and perfect sacrifice of the consecrated Christ, burnt up under God’s wrath for us, bringing justification, sanctification and ultimately glorification by his Holy Spirit. As a result, his people offer themselves as meal offerings with joy (drink offering) as they too consecrate themselves to his service.

When were these daily burnt offerings first offered? Answer-Mt. Sinai (Exodus 29:38). The meal and drink offerings offered simultaneously and described in Leviticus 1-7 were also offered with the daily burnt offering but not the other “ordinary” burnt offerings till they had access to more wine and flour in the promised land (Lev.23:10ff, Numbers 15:2)

We guess that the drink offering was poured over the burnt offering and the meal offering, while they were being consumed and none was ever drunk by the people or priests. The drink offering was never offered after the sin or trespass offering perhaps because these were for specific sins requiring confession and reparation.

The fact that the meal offering and drink offering always accompanied the daily burnt offering means that for the Christian there is no real joy without Christ and consecration to him.

In Psalm 116: 13 in connection with Leviticus 7:16 David offers a peace offering, and vows to thank God for his salvation (deliverance from his enemies), witnessing publicly among God’s people and not for pride or ostentation (c.f. Matthew 6:5)

The Daily Burnt Offering in the New Testament

The Daily Burnt Offering in the New Testament


Sung Psalm 116:9-19

Reading Matthew 27:35-54

The first allusion to the daily burnt offering in the New Testament is found in Luke 1:10 where Zacharias was offering incense in the temple and the people were praying outside. We learn from Exodus 30:7-9 that the morning and evening daily burnt offerings were contemporaneous with the morning and evening offering of incense. Psalm 141:2 also ties incense offering to the daily burnt offering twice daily.

The crucifixion of Christ occurred at 9am, the time of the daily morning sacrifice (Mark 15:25) and his death occurred at 3pm, the time of the daily evening sacrifice (Matthew 27:50) while he also fulfilled the whole burnt offering in his total consecration to God enabling us to become the meal offering and the drink offering.

As a result of his death, the ceremonial law of offerings was abolished typified by the veil which the hand of God tore from top to bottom, the substance of which was a picture of his flesh.

The Spirit was poured out leading to preaching of the gospel at 9am (Acts 2:15) at Pentecost on the basis of the accomplishment of the cross. Acts 3:1 details the ninth hour 3pm which was the time of evening prayer. Both timings point to the times of the daily burnt offerings.

Finally in Philippians (Phil. 2:17,18) Paul sees himself as a drink offering offered on top of his flock’s meal offering of themselves and all based on Christ’s work. He is speaking of his impending death (II Tim.4:6). These two occasions are the only use of this Greek word (SPENDOMAI) in Scripture.

The Offerings (continued)

The Offerings


Remember the twice daily burnt offering included the whole burnt offering, meal offering and drink offering. We can follow the offerings through the Old Testament starting with David in Psalm 92:1-3 and 141:1-2 where he compares his own devotions to the daily sacrifices which in the temple may well have included Psalms of praise (II Chron. 29 and I Chron.16) and definitely included incense which typified prayer ascending to God.

Following the prophets we can infer that even the apostate Northern Kingdom of Israel kept offering (though hypocritically) in Hosea 9:4 and Amos 4:4 which strongly suggests a daily burnt offering.

Ezekiel’s vision of a new temple most definitely includes daily sacrifices (46:13-15 c.f. Exodus 29:40 regarding amounts) and 45:17.

When we reach Daniel, the last prophet to speak of sacrifices, it is in conjunction with eschatology including the rise of Antiochus Epiphanes in 8:11-13, 11:31 and 9:21,24-which links the daily burnt offering with Christ’s cross and 12:11 which brings us to the Antichrist who makes true worship impossible. Hence Daniel speaks of the essential nature of these sacrifices in Israel’s worship and the abolishing of them caused by abominable idolatry. He speaks of “everlasting righteousness” which we would call justification which is typified by the daily whole burnt offering which for us (and them prospectively) was realized by Christ’s perfect obedience to the whole law on our behalf summed up by Paul in Romans 8:3,4, “For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh: That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.”

The Offerings (continued)

The Offerings (cont.)

Sung Psalm 104:10-16 note wine making man’s heart glad.

Reading Exodus 29:38-46

From what we gleaned so far, all the offerings taken together teach that the joy of the believer in God (to whom all the drink offering of wine was poured out) (Ps.33:1, Phil.4:4), is based on the sacrifice of Jesus Christ and his imputed righteousness (whole burnt offering), in the covenant (salt), through consecration of the believer (meal offering), prayer( frankincense) and without sin (leaven and honey).

In the passage above, particularly 41-46 we see covenant expressions (God meets with, speaks to and dwells with his people).

The daily burnt offering (morning and evening) from the believer’s viewpoint is a picture of the Christian life resting on the sacrifice of Christ, dedicated to him and full of joy. The twice daily offering is a good example of our own devotions to God morning and evening (Psalm 55:17). We believe they were 9am and 3pm.

We reviewed the order of Ex.28 dealing with Priests’ garments followed by Ex.29, the Priests’ consecration followed by the daily burnt offering. Numbers 28 details the daily offerings.

Historical examples of the twice daily sacrifices:

I Kings 18;29,36, II Kings 3:20 (the king ought to have been consecrated to God but instead made sinful ecumenical alliances) II Kings 16:15, I Chron.16:40 (David’s reformation), II Chron. 2:11 (Solomon), 31:3 (Hezekiah). Ezra 3:3, 9:4,5, Neh.10:33.