The Offerings (continued)

The Offerings (cont.)

Sung Psalm 104:10-16 note wine making man’s heart glad.

Reading Exodus 29:38-46

From what we gleaned so far, all the offerings taken together teach that the joy of the believer in God (to whom all the drink offering of wine was poured out) (Ps.33:1, Phil.4:4), is based on the sacrifice of Jesus Christ and his imputed righteousness (whole burnt offering), in the covenant (salt), through consecration of the believer (meal offering), prayer( frankincense) and without sin (leaven and honey).

In the passage above, particularly 41-46 we see covenant expressions (God meets with, speaks to and dwells with his people).

The daily burnt offering (morning and evening) from the believer’s viewpoint is a picture of the Christian life resting on the sacrifice of Christ, dedicated to him and full of joy. The twice daily offering is a good example of our own devotions to God morning and evening (Psalm 55:17). We believe they were 9am and 3pm.

We reviewed the order of Ex.28 dealing with Priests’ garments followed by Ex.29, the Priests’ consecration followed by the daily burnt offering. Numbers 28 details the daily offerings.

Historical examples of the twice daily sacrifices:

I Kings 18;29,36, II Kings 3:20 (the king ought to have been consecrated to God but instead made sinful ecumenical alliances) II Kings 16:15, I Chron.16:40 (David’s reformation), II Chron. 2:11 (Solomon), 31:3 (Hezekiah). Ezra 3:3, 9:4,5, Neh.10:33.


The Drink Offering

The Drink Offering

Sung Psalm 16:1-7 (note v4)

Reading Numbers 15:1-12

Ancient wineskin

I. For God

Gen.35:14 Jacob-first mention.

I Sam.1:14,24 Hannah (an example)

Ezekiel 45:17 King’s job in new temple.

Hosea 9:4 Hosea declares Israel’s inability.

Joel 1:9 Joel declares Judah’s inability (repentance v14)

II.  Pagan drink offerings

Jer.7:18, 19:13, 32:29, 44:17-25 Judah

Isaiah 57:6, 65:11, Ezek.20:28, II Kings 16:10-15.

Deut.32:38 (folly of the above)

Psalm 16:4 pagan drink offerings compared to loathsome blood

III. Of what they consisted and why.

Num. 28:7 strong drink

Psalm 104:15 and Judges 9:13 symbolising joy, even in God!

For completeness consider II Sam.23:15-17 where David pours out water as a kind of drink offering to God in recognition of their bravery and potential sacrifice made by his brave men.

Summary: The wine was always poured out with the meal offering along with oil^, frankincense+ and salt* but also with the burnt and peace offerings symbolising our joy in our consecration to God, by the spirit^, through prayer+, in the covenant of grace* based on the total self-sacrifice and atonement of Christ (the whole burst offering).

Wonderful typology!

PS Interesting that Paul likened his own impending death apparently as a drink offering to God in Philippians 2:17.

Daily Burnt Offering and Meal Offering

Burnt Offering and Meal Offering

Sung Psalm 89:19-25 (note anointing oil)

Reading Exodus 29:38-46

This passage details the daily continual burn offering offered first and then the meal offering offered with it afterwards. We looked at heretical views of RC church and Anabaptist  groups like the brethren. The typology of these is fulfilled in Christ’s total consecration body and soul leading to his, the offering up of himself in perfect obedience throughout his life and his atoning death and thus his ability to grant to his people on the basis of that perfect sacrifice, justification consisting of forgiveness and his own imputed righteousness, sanctification and glorification (proof Psalm 40).

The meat was fine flour mixed with olive oil and salt signifying the consecration of believers by the Holy Spirit in the covenant of love (proof I Sam.16:13, Zech.4:1-6, Mark 9:49,50, I John 2:27). The frankincense offered to the fire when it was being burnt signifies our prayers ascending to God with both offerings being a sweet savour.

Why a lamb? Two of the most important OT offerings in O.T. were the Passover and the daily burnt offering both consisting of a lamb pointing to Christ of course who is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29 and no less than 26 times in book of Revelation e.g. 5:6, 7:9,14 etc.)

Our response to his offering (the burnt offering made first) is our consecration and thankful obedience (the meal offering made second) leading to his meeting with us and speaking to us (Ex.29:42) in the daily experience of close covenant fellowship. Is this your experience? This is life abundant and eternal.


The Significance of the Meal Offering

The Significance of the Meal Offering

Sung Psalm 141:1-5 note incense

Reading Leviticus 2


Main ingredient

Just as all the bloody sacrifices represent and typify Christ whose blood alone atones for sin the main ingredient of the meal offering grain, represents us, our lives and work as Christians. Proof follows.

The bloody sacrifices were all farm animals or birds caught.


Oil, symbolic of the Holy Spirit which was part of the sacred anointing oil for the High Priest or the oil that was mixed with all the bloody and meal offerings of the people (I John 2:27, Matthew 25:4). The Spirit in us is essential for our acceptance and that of our works with God.

Salt, seasoning (not preservative in this case) to add flavour (Job.6:6, Matt.5:13, Mark 9:49,50, Luke 14:34,35, Col.4:6) and the salt of the covenant (added to EVERY OFFERING) showing we are his and he is ours.

Incense, made from resin from a tree, representing prayer, which like the smoke, ascends to God and smells good (Psalm 141:2, Luke 1:9,10, Rev.5:8, 8:3,4, Num.16:46, Lev.16:12,13, Ex.30:34, 2 Cor.2:15)

Non-additions, leaven standing for sin that corrupts, spreads and puffs up (1 Cor.5:2,6,7).

Honey which feeds yeast and hastens fermentation.

So in summary we offer ourselves, body and soul by the Holy Spirit daily to our God, praying without ceasing and incessantly abhorring and battling against sin (Romans 12:1-9).

A masterful study-thanks Rev. Stewart!


The Meal Offering

The Meal Offering


Sung Psalm 63:1-8

Reading Leviticus 2


Points about meat offering

  1. Name: Meat offering but really a meal offering of grain or grain product e.g. bread or cake or cereal.
  2. Substance: NOT an animal hence no slaughter or blood and hence not for sin (Hebrews 9:22). The only exception of a meal offering that atoned was for the exceptionally poor whose sin offering was of this type (Lev.5:11). Forms: fire-dried grain, flour or cooked flour (baked or fried).
  3. Stages: only presentation, burning and eating (priests).
  4. Occasions: alongside burnt and peace offerings.
  5. Additions: oil, frankincense (not actually an ingredient) and salt (Ezek.43:24, Mark 9:49).
  6. Prohibited additions leaven and honey.

Application: Christ was a sweet savour and we are to be the same. Our lives and speech are to be seasoned with salt, not conformed to the world.

Significance? Next class!

The Sacrifices

Sung Psalm 40:5-10

Reading Hebrews 10:1-25


Note these key NT verses which among other things make clear the abrogation of the OT sacrifices and the reality to which they pointed and their ultimate fulfilment.

Leviticus chapters 1-7 show us our Saviour’s work and our calling in response-full chart to follow below*. In summary the consecration of ourselves are like Christ’s perfect willing obedience, typified in the burnt offering, our thanksgiving, vows (e.g. church/marriage) and free-will offerings are like the peace offering in which we enjoy covenant fellowship with God in Christ, the sin and trespass offerings are our confession of sin and willingness to go outside the camp bearing Christ’s reproach and in the latter we make restitution if necessary.



In EVERYTHING give thanks!

A Christian ought to be a thankful person. Rev. Bill Langerack exhorts us!



BLOG POST | November 22, 2018


Rev Bill Langerack.

Whenever we gather to give thanks, we should remember what scripture teaches about the activity, especially this time of year when even the ungodly claim to engage in it. Thanksgiving is essentially an act of worship performed only by faith. Although we thank each other and consider it courteous, with few exceptions thanksgiving in scripture is directed entirely to God. Giving thanks is a sacrifice of praise, a freewill offering of the heart to express our gratitude to God (Heb. 13:15; Lev. 22:29). Entering his gates with thanksgiving is simply part of our reasonable service and payment of our vows (Ps. 50:14, 100:4). And it should describe our entire life—we must be thankful in whatsoever we do in word or deed (Col. 3:15-17).

Rightly, we associate thanksgiving mainly with prayer. Thanksgiving begins with prayer (Neh. 11:17). Godly officebearers like Moses, David, and Daniel regularly gave thanks in prayer. Jesus customarily gave thanks in prayer before he broke bread to eat (John 6:23), and Paul ceased not to pray thanks (Eph. 1:16). We also are told to continue in prayer with thanksgiving (Col. 4:2; Phil. 4:6). For Christians, prayer is simply the chief part of thankfulness (LD 45). But an important, perhaps overlooked, means of thanksgiving is singing. Scripture refers to it frequently. David wrote songs and appointed Levites to give thanks morning and evening by singing with instruments (1 Chr. 16:4-7). Scripture says it is good to give thanks by singing (Ps. 92:1), and urges us to come before his presence with thanksgiving, making a joyful noise unto him with psalms, and with voices of thanksgiving to publish all his works (Ps. 95:2, 26:7).

For what are we to be thankful? Everything. In everything give thanks, for this is the will of God concerning you (1 Thess. 5:18). Certainly this includes every good gift of creation. Only if we give thanks can we eat to the Lord (Rom. 14:6). Marriage and meats were created to be received with thanksgiving; indeed every creature of God is good if it is received with thanksgiving (1 Tim. 4:3-4). But, chiefly, we must thank God for who he is and for every spiritual benefit he grants us. The psalmists gave thanks for God’s name being near (Ps. 75:1), for his righteous judgments (Ps. 119:62), and at the remembrance of his holiness (Ps. 30:4). Anna gave thanks for Jesus Christ (Luke 2:38), and the Samaritan leper for his healing (Luke 17:16). Jesus gave thanks that God heard him (John 11:41), and hid the gospel from the wise but revealed it to babes (Matt. 11:15). Through Paul we learn to give thanks for the communion, love, earnest care, and remembrance of the saints (Col. 1:4; Acts 28:15; Phil. 1:3). We must be thankful for faith in Jesus (Phm. 1:5), our election (2 Thess. 2:13), his unspeakable gift (2 Cor. 9:15), obedience to the truth (Rom. 6:17), knowledge of God (2 Cor. 2:14), the Word of God (1 Thess. 2:13), grace (1 Cor. 1:4), our inheritance (Col. 1:12), for victory through Christ (1 Cor. 15:57). And that most often mentioned—give thanks for God is good and his mercy endures forever (1 Chr. 16:34).

Giving thanks is the unique activity of the believer. The ungodly are unable and unwilling, for in death there is no remembrance of God or thanksgiving (Ps. 6:5). It is the characteristic wickedness of the world that when they know God, they neither glorify him nor are thankful (Rom. 1:21). But the righteous give thanks, and do so frequently, for it is the very purpose of our salvation and reason for our existence (Ps. 140:13; Eph. 5:4). The Lord comforts Zion so that thanksgiving may be found therein (Is. 51:3). The Lord plants and builds up his church so we abound therein with thanksgiving (Col. 2:7). He multiplies our numbers and glorifies us with his goodness, so that out of his church shall proceed thanksgiving and the voice of them making merry (Jer. 30:19). We are enriched bountifully in everything, and the administration of his gifts is made abundant in order to bring much thanksgiving to God (2 Cor. 9:11-12). Let us then give thanks unto the Lord among the heathen (Ps. 18:49), give thanks in the great congregation (Ps. 35:18), rise up at midnight to give thanks (Ps. 119:62), and give thanks unto God forever and to all generations (Ps. 30:12, 79:13). For all things are for our sakes, that the abundant grace might through the thanksgiving of many redound to the glory of God (2 Cor. 4:15).

This article was written by Rev. William Langerak and was originally published in the December 1, 2010 issue of the Standard Bearer.
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The four bloody sacrifices-a summary

Sung Psalm 37:17-23

Reading Leviticus 5:5-13


In order of value we have 1) animal, bird, flour 2) male v female 3) mature v young.

Christ was the unspeakably valuable offering of the Father whose blood was inestimably precious ( II Cor. 9:15, I Peter 1:19).

David in the Psalm above compares the wicked who perish swiftly with the quickly consumed inward fat of a lamb (vv2,10,20), very likely in a peace offering (see table). Good to remember.


Name/refs 1.    Presentation 2. Laying on hands 3.Slaughter 4.  Application of blood (brass altar,  unless otherwise stated) 5. Burning 6.Eating (by priest unless otherwise stated)
Burt Offering (Heb.OLA) Lev.1, 6:8-12. Cow (m)

Sheep (f)

Goat (m)

Dove or pigeon

ditto ditto All splashed round about and upon altar

Bird’s blood wrung out on side of altar (1:15)

All of animal (except skin)

All of birds (except crop and feathers)

Peace offering (Heb.


Lev.3, 7:11-36.

Cow (m or f)

Lamb (m or f)

Goat (m or f)

ditto ditto All splashed round about upon altar Fat etc Breast and right shoulder

Offerer the rest

Sin offering (Heb. HATTAT) 4:1-5:13, 6:24-30) 1.HP: cow (m)

Cong: cow (m)


2.Ruler: kid (m)

Common person kid or lamb (f)


3.Poor: 2 doves or pigeons


4.v.poor: 1/10 ephah fine flour

Ditto plus confession of specific sin (5:15) ditto 1.HP and cong: sprinkled 7x on veil, smeared on horns of incense altar and poured at base of altar.


common people: smeared on horns of altar and poured at base of altar

3.Poor: sprinkled on side of altar and wrung out at bottom.

4.v.poor: no blood

1.Fat etc on altar. Body outside camp.

2.Fat etc on altar

3.All of birds (except crop and feathers)

4.Handful of flour


2.The rest


3. nothing


4.the rest

Trespass offering (Heb. HASHAM) 5:14-6:7, 7:1-10. Ram plus 120% cash Ditto plus confession of specific sin of omission or wrong done to another (Num.5:7) ditto All splashed round about upon altar Fat etc The rest


The Trespass Offering

Trespass Offering

Reading Lev. 5:14-6:7 and 7:1-7

Occasion: Sins quantifiable monetarily where recompense is made for sin.

Sins of property pertaining to God* or men, sometimes things forgotten for sacrifice, sometimes deliberate sins against neighbour.

Key words, “make amends,” (v16) and “restore” (6:4).

It was always a ram for sacrifice plus the restitution except Lev.14:12 and Num.6:12.

“in the holy things” (v15) e.g. *tithes, first fruits, first born, poll tax (Ex.30), pilgrimage feast offerings, vows, spoils of war.

C.f. Lev.22:14 and Ex.22:1 in the latter where civil law broken and person caught.


Slaughter-c.f. burnt/sin off both killed north side of altar.

Blood application- blood splashed (B.O.) sprinkled/smeared (S.O)

Burning like P.O and S.O. all fatty covered innards.

Eating- priest as S.O (when common man or ruler)

C.f. Num.5:5-10 when there is no-one known to recompense.

Cross refs: Psalm 69:4 (messianic fulfilment where Christ not only pays for our sins but gives us bountifully blessings on top) and Isaiah 53:10 (sin means literally trespass). Luke 19:8 where Zacchaeus applies this in reparation on conversion.

Click image for clarity.



The Sin Offering (4)

Sung Psalm 51:1-7

Read Leviticus 4:1-21

The Sin Offering deals with the pollution of sin.

Sin brings guilt and pollution. Christ’s death frees us from the wages or penalty of sin namely death and condemnation, then the pollution of sin by sanctification and finally when we meet him, from the presence of sin forever.

Where was the blood of the sin offering applied?

  1. Before the veil (v17)
  2. On the horns of the altar of incense (v7) see also Ex.30:7-10
  3. Beside the burn altar (v7)

Exodus 20:24 describes the first altar for Israel, chapters 27 and 38 the making of the bronze altar and chapter 26:31 of the veil.

The common factor in the first two places is “before the Lord” i.e. getting nearer to where he resided in the holiest place.

The application of blood purifies from the pollution of sin. The fact that these utensils for worship needed cleansing proves that all our works and worship similarly need purified from their defilement.

Even the land (where God dwelt) was defiled by sin (Lev.18:24-30, Deut.21:1-8, Ex.29:43-46).

All these places need sanctified-namely the land, the tabernacle and the holy place because God requires a perfectly clean habitation (which is why we must be sanctified by the Holy Spirit!)

The greatest sin offering was the day of atonement (Lev.16:3-16) when both a goat, for the people and a bullock for the high priest were sacrificed and the blood used to cleanse tabernacle, altar and holy place (16:16,19,20 c.f. 8:15).

Uncleanness in Leviticus 11-15: Leviticus 11-foods, 12-childbirth, 13,14-leprosy in people, cloth and buildings, 15-defiling bodily issues (also 5:2,3-touching unclean things).

Check also Hebrews 12:14-15 bitterness defiles, Eph.4:30 sin defiles and when anything defiles God cannot dwell there, Matt.15:18 our mouths defile us, 1 Cor.3:17, I Tim.1:10 sexual sin defiles, Rev.7:14 shows how Christ’s blood cleanses and Rev.21:27 describes fact that no-one and nothing defiled enters the realm of glory in the new Jerusalem.

Daily cleansing is promised, the only condition is confession of sin I John 1:9.