The Trespass Offering

Trespass Offering

Reading Lev. 5:14-6:7 and 7:1-7

Occasion: Sins quantifiable monetarily where recompense is made for sin.

Sins of property pertaining to God* or men, sometimes things forgotten for sacrifice, sometimes deliberate sins against neighbour.

Key words, “make amends,” (v16) and “restore” (6:4).

It was always a ram for sacrifice plus the restitution except Lev.14:12 and Num.6:12.

“in the holy things” (v15) e.g. *tithes, first fruits, first born, poll tax (Ex.30), pilgrimage feast offerings, vows, spoils of war.

C.f. Lev.22:14 and Ex.22:1 in the latter where civil law broken and person caught.


Slaughter-c.f. burnt/sin off both killed north side of altar.

Blood application- blood splashed (B.O.) sprinkled/smeared (S.O)

Burning like P.O and S.O. all fatty covered innards.

Eating- priest as S.O (when common man or ruler)

C.f. Num.5:5-10 when there is no-one known to recompense.

Cross refs: Psalm 69:4 (messianic fulfilment where Christ not only pays for our sins but gives us bountifully blessings on top) and Isaiah 53:10 (sin means literally trespass). Luke 19:8 where Zacchaeus applies this in reparation on conversion.

Click image for clarity.




The Sin Offering (4)

Sung Psalm 51:1-7

Read Leviticus 4:1-21

The Sin Offering deals with the pollution of sin.

Sin brings guilt and pollution. Christ’s death frees us from the wages or penalty of sin namely death and condemnation, then the pollution of sin by sanctification and finally when we meet him, from the presence of sin forever.

Where was the blood of the sin offering applied?

  1. Before the veil (v17)
  2. On the horns of the altar of incense (v7) see also Ex.30:7-10
  3. Beside the burn altar (v7)

Exodus 20:24 describes the first altar for Israel, chapters 27 and 38 the making of the bronze altar and chapter 26:31 of the veil.

The common factor in the first two places is “before the Lord” i.e. getting nearer to where he resided in the holiest place.

The application of blood purifies from the pollution of sin. The fact that these utensils for worship needed cleansing proves that all our works and worship similarly need purified from their defilement.

Even the land (where God dwelt) was defiled by sin (Lev.18:24-30, Deut.21:1-8, Ex.29:43-46).

All these places need sanctified-namely the land, the tabernacle and the holy place because God requires a perfectly clean habitation (which is why we must be sanctified by the Holy Spirit!)

The greatest sin offering was the day of atonement (Lev.16:3-16) when both a goat, for the people and a bullock for the high priest were sacrificed and the blood used to cleanse tabernacle, altar and holy place (16:16,19,20 c.f. 8:15).

Uncleanness in Leviticus 11-15: Leviticus 11-foods, 12-childbirth, 13,14-leprosy in people, cloth and buildings, 15-defiling bodily issues (also 5:2,3-touching unclean things).

Check also Hebrews 12:14-15 bitterness defiles, Eph.4:30 sin defiles and when anything defiles God cannot dwell there, Matt.15:18 our mouths defile us, 1 Cor.3:17, I Tim.1:10 sexual sin defiles, Rev.7:14 shows how Christ’s blood cleanses and Rev.21:27 describes fact that no-one and nothing defiled enters the realm of glory in the new Jerusalem.

Daily cleansing is promised, the only condition is confession of sin I John 1:9.

The Sin Offering (3)

The Sin Offering-“Without the camp”

Psalm 40:6-10


Lev. 4:11,12,21.

What is the significance of “outside the camp”?

Outside meant not being among God’s people, with the unclean e.g. lepers, not being safe/secure, excommunicated. Examples: those executed (and presumably buried), Lev. 10:4,5, 13:45,46, contaminated buildings 14:41,45, Num. 31:13,19, 5:1-4, toilet area Deut. 23:12-14, Lev.24:23, Num. 15:35,36, Deut. 17:4,5, I Kings 21:13, Acts 7:58, II Chron. 33:15.

This is why in fulfilment of this offering and all it represented, namely uncleanness, curse etc., Christ died outside the city of Jerusalem John 19:20,41.

Hebrews 13 makes it clear Christ fulfilled the sin offering including the blood of atonement sprinkled on the mercy seat I Peter 1:2 and the body suffering under the burning of God’s wrath outside the city.

I Cor.5:5 is the NT equivalent of being put outside the camp (church) by excommunication, hence being consigned to the realm of Satan I Tim. 1:20 and ultimately if unrepentant or unbelieving etc.,into hell and everlasting fire Rev.21:14,15.

As an aside it is worth noting that believers only have a right to communion (close communion) who are able to be excommunicated i.e. are church members.

Our sacrifices now consist praise, thanks, sharing, doing good, submitting to church leaders and being willing to suffer shame.

Further info on outside the camp. Outside the city of Jerusalem which was the city of God and the place of his dwelling was the Valley of Hinnom (south of the city walls in pic). See description. It typifies everlasting destruction in hell which is outside the holy city of the Jerusalem which comes down from above (Rev.21). This was also where Jeremiah pronounced some of his woes (Jeremiah 19:2) which included the captivity or destruction of most of the Jews.

Hinnom a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called “Hill of Evil Counsel.” It took its name from “some ancient hero, the son of Hinnom.” It is first mentioned in Joshua 15:8 . It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the valley was called Tophet, or the “fire-stove,” where the children were burned. After the Exile, in order to show their abhorrence of the locality, the Jews made this valley the receptacle of the offal of the city, for the destruction of which a fire was, as is supposed, kept constantly burning there.

The Jews associated with this valley these two ideas, (1) that of the sufferings of the victims that had there been sacrificed; and (2) that of filth and corruption. It became thus to the popular mind a symbol of the abode of the wicked hereafter. It came to signify hell as the place of the wicked. “It might be shown by infinite examples that the Jews expressed hell, or the place of the damned, by this word. The word Gehenna [the Greek contraction of Hinnom] was never used in the time of Christ in any other sense than to denote the place of future punishment.” About this fact there can be no question. In this sense the word is used eleven times in our Lord’s discourses ( Matthew 23:33 ; Luke 12:5 ; Matthew 5:22 , etc.).

The Sin Offering (2)

The Sin Offering

Leviticus 4

The sin offering is unique to Israel and also new because:

  1. They had God’s law written with extensive moral and ceremonial commands.
  2. The parties had to be in place viz. High Priest, congregation and leaders.
  3. The tabernacle, altars and camp boundary had to be in place.

Unique features of sin offering for:

  1. High Priest-bullock, blood into tabernacle (three applications v7), rest burnt outside camp.
  2. Congregation-elders lay hands on beast.
  3. Rulers-male kid goat, smearing horns burnt altar.
  4. Commoners-female kid goat or lamb or turtle doves or flour.

Next class: the significance of outside the camp (Heb.13:11-13) and what happened in the tabernacle.

Helpful chart and article: Link


The Sin Offering (1)

The Sin Offering

Psalm 19:9-14

Leviticus 4:1-28

The sin offering characteristics:

  1. For sins of ignorance against any part of the law-though really there was no excuse as conscience accuses but when people were made aware either by the witness of others or the word of God read or preached they had a duty to confess and offer their sacrifice. Examples: Abimelech (Gen.20), Deut. 19:5 (manslaughter), I Sam.14:24 (Jonathan and the honey). See also Numbers 15:27-29 and Hebrews 5:2. Sins of ignorance are contrasted with presumptuous or deliberate sins in Numbers 15:30-32ff and see also Psalm 19:12,13.
  2. Specific instances see Leviticus 5 needing confessed.
  3. Different status of the sinner counted: some were more serious e.g. office bearers (like the priest) or in NT (teachers James 3:1), also mature or older saints. Luke 12:28, Eccles 10:1.

The Sacrifices (14)


Sung Psalm 22:23-28 (note vow v25)

Reading I Samuel 1:1-20

This chapter centred on godly Hannah is perhaps the best example of the application of the OT feasts and sacrifices mentioned in the Pentateuch, especially the peace offering with a vow, freewill offering and thanksgiving.

I personally love the silent prayer that came from Hannah’s heart (v11), proof that God even hears that kind, spontaneously and silently uttered internally!

Remember that at the three prescribed feasts of Israel certain sacrifices were required for Israel corporately (Ex.23:15 ff., Deut.16:16,17) and others were individual and voluntary (Deut.12:5-12,17,18 cf. II Cor.9:6-8)

The family of Elkanah ate hence it was likely a peace offering (vv4,7,9)

Peace came to Hannah through prayer and the word of God (uttered by the high priest), on the basis of atonement (offering) and her believing.

She vowed she would give her son for a Nazarite for life (and no doubt had in mind a solution to Israel’s apostasy as ecclesiastical wickedness was rife). Elkanah approved her vow (Num.30:7). Later when bringing Samuel she offered burnt offerings and peace offerings (v24) proof of her husband’s wealth. Judgment fell on the high priest and his godless sons (v31).

The Sacrifices (13)

Peace Offering

Sung Psalm 116:9-19 (note esp. vv14,17,18)

Reading Leviticus 7:11-34

The connections between the whole burnt offering and the peace offering are threefold:

  1. Both had to be accompanied by the meal offering
  2. They were always offered together (Lev.3:5). The offering consisted whole burnt offering plus fat of peace offering.
  3. Many Biblical examples: Deut.27:5-7, Josh.22:27, Judges 21:4, I Sam.10:8, II Sam.6:17, 24:25, I Kings 3:15, 8:64.

Why was this? Because from Scripture as a whole, the central substitutionary atonement and total consecration of the Messiah (typified by the burnt offering) is the basis of our thanksgiving, vows and fellowship with God (typified by the peace offering). It is also worth noting that another important sacrifice, the Passover, was closely related to the peace offering in that it was eaten.

When we come to the New Testament the parallels and reality of these types are our eating AND drinking Christ (John 6:33,50ff) but note we eat the whole Christ and drink his blood (by faith) in believing.

In the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper (I Cor.11) we all eat the same thing (no clergy/laity divide), it is communal, and the participants must be clean (worthy partakers).

The ultimate fulfilment is the Marriage Supper of the Lamb (Rev.19:7-9).

Application: we as God’s people offer spiritual sacrifices. Find them in the N.T. by looking up the word in a concordance.

The Sacrifices (12)

The Peace Offering

Psalm 56:5-13 (note v 12 “vows”)

Reading Lev.3


The peace offering is distinctive in being the only offering eaten in part by the offeror (as well as the priests) see Lev.7:11-27. The priests got the wave breast and heave right shoulder (Lev.7:34)

Where was it eaten? Deut. 12:17-19 tells us at the tabernacle or temple.

With whom? Family, servants, Levites and the needy.

How? With joy.

Freewill offerings came under peace offerings (Deut. 16:10-12) given for the blessings of redemption and provision.

Deut. 27:7 (Joshua 8) is an instance where all the people offered in prospect of entering their inheritance.

Why PEACE offering? Shalom encompasses provision and prosperity, spiritual blessings and united fellowship with others and most importantly God himself

The essence of the peace offering was the enjoying the blessings of salvation as well as earthly provision (Romans 8:32)

It was associated with covenant renewal (Ex.23:5-11, Deut.27:7) and the experience of covenant fellowship.

What occasioned this offering? Lev.7:11-21

  • Thanks for deliverance (physical and/or spiritual) and in anticipation of mercy in confession.
  • Vows
  • Freewill

Examples Judges 20:26, 21:4, II Sam.24:25, Psalm 107:22, 56:12.

From type to reality:

  1. Christology (cross) He is our peace.
  2. Soteriology (Spirit applies salvation and we eat and drink Christ by faith). Fruit of the Spirit is joy and peace.
  3. Christian life (daily covenant fellowship with Christ).

The Sacrifices (11)

Summary of the teaching on burnt offering:

Regarding Christ:

  1. Burnt offering typifies his atonement (substitutionary sacrifice)
  2. Burnt offering typifies Christ’s wholehearted obedience/consecration. Also Eph.5:2,”And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour.”

Regarding us;

  1. We are called to wholehearted obedience
  2. We are called to costly worship (sacrifice of ourselves)

Regarding Scripture: they are pervasive.

Psalms and the burnt offering:

  1. Psalm 20:3
  2. Psalm 40:6 (proof of point 2 above). Christ speaks to his church through his ministers.
  3. Psalm 50:8,9.
  4. Psalm 51:16,19.
  5. Psalm 66:13,15 (again note always male animals use for whole burnt offering)

Vows were usually associated with the peace offering but also the burnt offering (Lev.22:18,21).

Finally see Isaiah 56:7 where the burnt offering is associated with prayer, arguably the costliest and hardest offering we bring to God because of our selfishness and worldly-mindedness.

The Sacrifices (10)


Sung Psalm 20:1-9 (note v3)

Reading Judges 11:29-40 (Jephthah’s sacrifice) 

History of Burnt Offerings

References: Ex. 10:25, 18:12, 24:5,8 (note the young men offering in this covenant renewal before the time of the instituted Levitical priesthood) also c.f. I Peter 1:2 Christ’s blood applied in same way to us.

Ex.32:6 (context of idolatry)

Num. 23:2,3,6,15,17 (Balaam offered bullocks and rams because the burnt offering was always MALE)

Num.28 and 29 contain details of burnt offering.

Joshua 8:31 (covenant renewal) and 22:23, 27,29,34.

Judges 6:19-21,26 (Gideon).

Judges 11:29-40 Jephthah was a godly man of faith who knew Scripture so because of his character he would never offer a human sacrifice AND his daughter was female! Her consecration to God, the equivalent of a burnt offering consisted in large part of her remaining a virgin for life (see Lev.27 and I Cor.7:37).

Judges 13:16,20,23 (Manoah)

Judges 20:26 (after the outrage at Gibeah), 21:4.

I Chron.29:21 (David’s 1000s of beasts)

II Chron. 1:3,6. (Solomon)

I Kings 8:63,64 (Solomon’s largest ever number of sacrifices)

I Kings 18:33-38 (Elijah)

II Kings 3:27 (pagan human sacrifice)

II Kings 5:17 (Naaman’s request)

II Kings 10:24 Another pagan sacrifice

Ezekiel 40-48 many refs to offerings

Micah 6:6-8

Mark 12:33 obedience is better than sacrifice

To summarise: The burnt offering was pervasive in Israel’s national constitution, history and Scripture. Psalm 20:3 mentions the burnt offering which typifies Christ who atones for sin, is wholehearted in his obedient consecration by the Spirit and whose merits become the basis for our prayers (in his name vv1,7). As a result, our worship also ascends to him as we offer ourselves.