This is one of the longer chapters in Scripture at sixty-three verses. It is an allegorical account of God’s gracious dealings with Jerusalem, the worship centre of Judah and Judah’s apostasy from him in the form of a female’s life story. Her birth occurred in Canaan where Abraham sojourned and from whence Jacob and his entourage of seventy-five souls went down to Egypt where they were loathed as shepherds and where none pitied them as their sufferings increased.
Their maturing to become a women and multiplying as a nation happened in Egypt from where God took them to himself in covenant redeeming love when he brought them out and gave them the law. Jeremiah speaks of their responsive love in Jeremiah 2:2 which I take to mean the days when they willingly offered for the beautiful tabernacle, the symbol and reality of their heavenly husband with them. Entering into covenant with his people God washed them (forgiveness and cleansing from sin) and anointed them (renewal of the Holy Ghost) just as he does with us (Titus 3:5). Blessedness in physical riches of every kind followed and spiritually, in all the riches of grace found in Christ (the Rock that followed them). See also Isaiah 61:10.
Having settled in the promised land they prospered exceedingly during especially the kingdoms of David and Solomon but then in sequence both Israel and Judah became unfaithful idolatrous whores whose privileges became prostituted and who went as far as sacrificing their covenant children to Molech.
Their idolatry consisted in alliances with Egypt and Assyria, sending them riches (II Kings 16:8), and copying their idolatry (II Kings 7:10), and their punishment in the way of famine, Philistine and Syrian invasion (II Chron.28:5,18). Ultimately God says they will suffer the righteous punishment for adultery namely stoning, conquest and violent death which occurred when the city was battered by catapults and myriads died by the sword around 585 B.C. He speaks of Samaria, the northern kingdom and Sodom as her sisters, but she has been more wicked than both of them. The bringing again of the captivity of these sisters(vv53-55) Gill sees as being fulfilled in the gathering of the gentiles. Despite the general unfaithfulness of the nation, God remembers his everlasting (new) covenant that reached back into history, made with his elect remnant in all of time.
Statue of Bel of Babylon